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Manuscript title
The title should not contain abbreviations and should be a brief phrase describing the contents of the paper .

Author Information
Complete names and affiliation of all authors, including contact details of corresponding author (Telephone, Fax and E-mail address).

The abstract should summarize in 300 words or less. Standard nomenclature should be used and abbreviations should be avoided. The preferable format should accommodate a description of the study background, methods, results and conclusion. Following the abstract, a list of keywords (3-10) and abbreviations should be included.


The introduction should set the tone of the paper by providing a clear statement of the study, the relevant literature on the study subject and the proposed approach or solution. The introduction should be general enough to attract a reader’s attention from a broad range of scientific disciplines.

Materials and Methods
This section should provide a complete overview of the design of the study. Detailed descriptions of materials or participants, comparisons, interventions and types of analysis should be mentioned. However, only new procedures should be described in detail; previously published procedures should be cited and important modifications of published procedures should be mentioned briefly. Capitalize trade names and include the manufacturer's name and address.

The results section should provide complete details of the experiment that are required to support the conclusion of the study. The results should be written in the past tense when describing findings in the authors' experiments Results and discussion may be combined or in a separate section. Speculation and detailed interpretation of data should not be included in the Results but should be put into the discussion section.

This section includes acknowledgment of people, grant details, funds, etc. 
Note: If an author fails to submit his/her work as per the above instructions, they are pleased to maintain clear titles namely headings, subheading.

Only published or accepted manuscripts should be included in the reference list. Source uses the numbered citation (citation-sequence) method. References are listed and numbered in the order that they appear in the text. In the text, citations should be indicated by the reference number in brackets. Multiple citations within a single set of brackets should be separated by commas.

When there are three or more sequential citations, they should be given as a range. Example: "... now enable biologists to simultaneously monitor the expression of thousands of genes in a single experiment [1,5-7,28]." Make sure the parts of the manuscript are in the correct order for the relevant journal before ordering the citations. Figure captions and tables should be at the end of the manuscript.

Authors are requested to provide at least one online link for each reference as following (preferably PubMed).Because all references will be linked electronically as much as possible to the papers they cite, proper formatting of the references is crucial.

Note: Please list the first five authors and then add "et al." if there are additional authors.

Please use the following style for the reference list

* Zhang AY, Sun Z, Leung CCJ, Wei H, Lau KY, et al. (2012) Food waste biorefinery development: Valorisation of bakery waste from Starbucks Hong Kong for succinic acid production. Green Chemistry.

* Leung CCJ, Cheung ASY, Zhang AY, Lam KF, Lin CSK (2012) Utilisation of waste bread for fermentative succinic acid production. Biochem Eng J 65:10-15.

Article-processing charge:

Source Journals levies an article-processing charge of $ 499 for each manuscript accepted after peer-review to enable the journal to make all of its content open access.